Himalayas within India are collectively known as North India. South India consists of the peninsular region, often termed simply the Peninsula. On the basis of its physiography, India is divided into ten regions: the Indo-Gangetic Plain, the northern mountains of the Himalayas, the Central Highlands, the Deccan or Peninsular Plateau, the East Coast (Coromandel Coast in the south), the West Coast (Konkan, Kankara, and Malabar coasts), the Great Indian Desert (a geographic feature known as the Thar Desert in Pakistan) and the Rann of Kutch, the valley of the Brahmaputra in Assam, the northeastern hill ranges surrounding the Assam Valley, and the islands of the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. Several major rivers, including the Ganges, Brahmaputra, and Indus, flow through India. Arising in the northern mountains and carrying rich alluvial soil to the plains below, these mighty rivers have supported agriculture-based civilizations for thousands of years.
The climate of India may be broadly described as tropical monsoon type. There are four seasons: winter (January- February), hot weather summer (march- may), rainy south-western monsoon (June- September) and post- monsoon, also known as the north-east monsoon in the southern peninsula ( October- December). India's climate is affected by two seasonal winds- the north-east monsoon and south-west monsoon. The north-east monsoon commonly known as winter monsoon blows sea to land after crossing the Indian Ocean, the Arabiab Sea and the Bay of Bengal. The south-west monsoon brings most of the rainfall during the year in the country.
HistoryDating back at least 5000 years, civilization in India has been a rich and complicated mix of peoples and religions. The history of India begins with Harappa and Mohenjodaro, which were ancient Indian cities that existed between 3000 and 1500 BC. Excavated remains suggest that these cities were well planned with brick structures, wide streets, and underground water systems. Many copper, bronze, and pottery items were recovered as well as gold and silver jewelry. Seals with writing on them were also found but archeologists could not interpret these writings. The earliest urban civilization in the history of India therefore remains partly a mystery to us.
Brahminism, Buddhism, Jainism and Hinduism all developed here in a series of kingdoms and empires. The Gupta dynasty ruled over north India, during a golden age of about two hundred years (320-544 A.D). In the 600s, the Indus River Valley was invaded by Arabs, who brought Islam with them, and it took hold in northern India, leading to many changes in the future course of the history of India.
he Sultanate of Delhi was established in 1206, starting a period in the history of India when the ruler from the throne at Delhi was considered very important. The Sultanate managed to withstand repeated Mongol invasions and eventually succeeded in bringing together nearly all of India (with the exception of some of the southern states). But the Sultanate of Delhi was weakened by the stresses of internal rebellion, particularly when combined with the attack of Timur Leng (Tamerlane) in 1398. In 1526, Babur established the Mughal Empire, whose culture thrived under Akbar the Great. Threats to the Mughal Empire from Maratha and Rajput forces were compounded by the encroaching interests of the European powers, who came to India after Vasco de Gama discovered a sea route to India in 1498. This discovery opened another chapter in the history of India.
British rule in India began in the AD 1700s. Foreign domination engendered Indian nationalism, which eventually led to India winning its independence in 1947, and the beginning of the history of India as a democratic and independent nation. Split from Pakistan at independence, India struggled with its Muslim neighbor over border differences and Hindu-Muslim relations. India and Pakistan still conflict over the Jammu and Kashmir region, parts of which are also occupied by China. The history of India reflects its the regional diversity, cultural heritage and the unifying forces that have made India the secular and pluralistic nation that it is today.